I built my first websites in the late '90s, and it was pretty simple to get them up and running. You had a single shared server running Apache and you could FTP in by typing ftp://ftp.example.com into the URL bar, entering your username and password, and moving your files to the host. They were different times, simpler times.

Things have changed quite a bit over the past two decades. Websites became more complex and required build steps before going to production. One server became many servers running behind load balancers, and version control and git became commonplace.

For a personal project, I had a custom setup, and I knew I wanted the ability to deploy my website to production with a single action: merging code into the master branch on GitHub. I also knew I didn't want to orchestrate a huge Kubernetes cluster or Docker swarm or server fleet with pods and agents and all sorts of complications for my small web application. In order to do this, I had to get familiar with CI/CD.

So if you have a small project (in this case, Node.js project) and you would like to get an idea of how to automate your deployment so that what's on Git is up to date with what's in production, this article might be of interest to you.



This is not quite a tutorial, just documentation of what I learned and the process I decided upon to test and deploy my code to production in a single automated step.

My process ended up looking like this:

Code pushed to all branches and pull requests:

  • Kick off a build on Travis CI
  • Run all unit, integration, and end-to-end tests

Code pushed to master branch only:

  • All of the above plus...
  • Build a Docker image based on the current code, settings, and environment
  • Deploy the image to Docker Hub
  • Connect to production server
  • Pull the image from Docker Hub
  • Stop the current container and start a container based on the new image

If nothing about Docker, images, and containers makes sense to you yet, don't worry. It'll be covered in the article.

What is CI/CD?

CI/CD stands for continous integration/continuous deployment.

Continous integration

Continuous integration is the process wherein developers frequently commit to the main source (usually master branch) and ensure quality control through automated tests.

Continous deployment/delivery

Continuous deployment is the process of deploying that code frequently through an automated process. You will also see this as continuous delivery, which is similar but requires a manual approval before the deployment process runs.

Getting Started

The application I used for learning this process was TakeNote, a web-based note-taking app I'm working on. Initially, I tried to make a JAMStack app, or front-end only without a server, in order to take advantage of the built-in hosting and deployment that Netlify has to offer. As the app grew in complexity, I needed to bring in a server, and therefore would have to figure out my own automated integration and deployment strategy.

In my case, the app is a Node.js and Express server, that serves a React single page application front end with secure APIs on the back end. This follows the strategy found in the Full Stack Authentication tutorial.

I consulted my friend and automated expert, Joe, about what I should do to get this working like I wanted. He gave me the idea for the flow I laid out in the goals of this article, which meant I was going to have to figure out how to use Docker.


Docker is a tool that allows you to easily share, deploy, and run applications consistently in many environments through containers. First, I needed to get access to the Docker command line (CLI). The installation instructions for Docker are not very clear or straightforward, but you need to download Docker Desktop (for Mac or Windows).

Additionally, Docker Hub is similar to GitHub for git repositories or the npmjs registry for JavaScript packages - it's an online repository of Docker images and the login that Docker Desktop will connect to.

Once all this is complete, you can ensure Docker CLI is set up and working by checking the version.

docker -v

And log in to Docker Hub, where it will prompt you for your username and password.

docker login

In order to use Docker, you must understand the concept of images and containers.


An image is a blueprint that contains the instructions to build a container. It's an immutable snapshot of the file system and configuration of an application. Images can be easily shared between developers.

docker images # list all images


A container is a executable package that contains everything needed to run an application. It will always run the same, regardless of infrastructure, in a sandboxed environment. It is a running instance of an image.

docker ps -a # list all containers


A tag is a reference to a specific image version.

CLI reference

Here's an overview a few commonly used commands.

Command Context Action
docker build Image Builds an image from a Dockerfile
docker tag Image Tags an image
docker images Image Lists images
docker run Container Runs a container based on an image
docker push Image Pushes an image to a registry
docker pull Image Pulls an image from a repository
docker ps Container Lists containers
docker system prune Image/Container Remove unused containers and images


I know how to run my app locally for production. I have a Webpack configuration that builds the production React application, then a command to start the Node server on port 5000. It looks like this.

I don't have a sample application for this article, but any simple Node application should be easy to set up with the following instructions.

npm i         # install dependencies
npm run build # build React app
npm run start # start Node server

To use a container, you'll need to give instructions to Docker via a file called Dockerfile in the root of your project. Dockerfile seems a little intimidating at first, but it's not that much different from how I set up my local environment. It just requires a few Dockerfile specific commands.

  • FROM - Start the Dockerfile and pull from a base image
  • COPY - Copy files from local source to container target
  • WORKDIR - Set working directory for subsequent commands
  • RUN - Run commands
  • EXPOSE - Set a port
  • ENTRYPOINT - Set executable command

It looked a little something like this.

# Pull from a base image
FROM node:12-alpine

# Copy the files from the current directory to app/
COPY . app/

# Use app/ as the working directory

# Install dependencies (npm ci is similar to npm i, but for automated builds)
RUN npm ci --only-production

# Build production client side React application
RUN npm run build

# Listen on the specified port

# Set Node server
ENTRYPOINT npm run start

Depending on the base image you choose, you might need to install additional dependencies, as certain base images (such as Node Alpine Linux) are meant to be as small as possible and don't have an extensive array of global programs installed.

Building, tagging, and running a container

Building and running a container locally is pretty simple from here. Before attempting to deploy it to Docker Hub for use in automation, you'll want to see if it works locally.


First, you build the image, with a name, and optionally a tag (if no tag is specified, it will be tagged latest).

# Build an image
docker build -t <image>:<tag> .

You'll see it start running through all the steps.

Sending build context to Docker daemon   2.88MB
Step 1/9 : FROM node:12-alpine
 ---> ...running through all the steps...
Successfully built 123456789123
Successfully tagged <image>:<tag>

It might take a minute or two depending on how many dependencies you have. Once it's complete, you can do docker images to see your new image.

REPOSITORY          TAG               IMAGE ID            CREATED              SIZE
<image>             latest            123456789123        About a minute ago   x.xxGB


The image is created, so you can run a container based on it. Since I want to view it on localhost:5000, I'll set the left side of the port to 5000, and the right side is which point the container is pointing at.

docker run -p 5000:5000 <image>:<tag> # Run on local port 5000 and container port 5000

Now that the container is created and running, you can docker ps to see it (or docker ps -a to see all containers, if it's not currently running).

CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED              STATUS                      PORTS                    NAMES
987654321234        <image>             "/bin/sh -c 'npm run…"   6 seconds ago        Up 6 seconds      >5000/tcp   stoic_darwin

Going to localhost:5000 will now display your fully built application, just as it will appear in production.

Tag and publish

To use one of these images on a production server, you'll want to be able to retrieve it from Docker Hub. You'll have to create a repository for the project on Docker Hub. Once you do that, you'll have a place to send your image. You'll have to update the image name to be your Docker Hub username and repository, plus whatever tag you want.

Now you can build and tag like before with the new names, and docker push to the Docker Hub repository.

docker build -t <username>/<repository>:<tag> .
docker tag <username>/<repository>:<tag> <username>/<repository>:latest
docker push <username>/<repository>:<tag>

# It might look something like this:
docker build -t user/app:v1.0.0 .
docker tag user/app:v1.0.0 user/app:latest
docker push user/app:v1.0.0

If all went well, your image will now be live on Docker Hub and it will be easy to share.

Next steps

At this point, I can see that my application is running from a docker container locally, and I have that image on Docker Hub, so that's a big portion of the battle. From here, there are two more issues to cover:

  • Setting up a continuous integration tool to test and deploy code
  • Setting up a production server to receive and serve code

In my case, I used Travis CI for CI/CD, and DigitalOcean for the server.

There are alternatives for the automation tool and server. For example, instead of Travis, you could use CircleCI or Github Actions. Instead of DigitalOcean, you could use AWS or Linode.

Since I went with Travis as I already had some testing setup, I can briefly go into what it entails to set up a Travis flow.

Travis CI

Travis CI is a tool for testing and shipping code. I don't want to go too much into the specifics of setting up Travis because every use case will be unique, but I'll cover some of the basics in case you decide to use them. The concepts and configuration will be simple whether you're dealing with Travis, CircleCI, Jenkins, or whatever.

To use Travis CI, go to the website, create an account, and integrate it with your GitHub account. You'll have to find the GitHub repository you're planning on adding automation to and enable it. (I'm using GitHub, but I'm sure it integrates with BitBucket or GitLab or whatever else.)

Every time you start a build that's connected to Travis, it will spin up a server that runs all the commands you've specified, including deployment on specific branches.


A Travis configuration file, which will live at .travis.yml in the root of your project, has a concept of lifecycle. From earliest to latest, this is what the lifecycle looks like.

  • apt addons
  • cache components
  • before_install
  • install
  • before_script
  • script
  • before_cache
  • after_success or after_failure
  • before_deploy
  • deploy
  • after_deploy
  • after_script


In my Travis configuration file, I'm going to set up the local Travis server. I've chosen a language of Node, a version of 12, and instructed it to install the necessary dependencies to use Docker.

Everything in this Travis file will run for all pull requests and branches on the GitHub repository, unless otherwise specified. This is useful because it means we can run tests on all incoming code to see if it's ready to merge into master and won't break the build. For this global configuration, I install everything locally, run a Webpack dev server in the background (specific to my flow), and run the tests.

If you want code coverage badges on your repository, this quick tutorial explains how to use Jest, Travis, and Coveralls to collect and display coverage.

# Set the language
language: node_js

# Set the Node version
  - '12'

  # Use Docker command line
  - docker

  # Install dependencies for tests
  - npm ci

  # Start server and client for tests
  - npm run dev &

  # Run tests
  - npm run test

This signifies the end of lifecycle for branches and pull requests only.


Assuming that all automated tests passed, you have the optional ability to deploy code to a production server. Since we only want to do that on master, you'll specify that in the deploy config. Before you try inlining code here like in the rest of the steps, I'll warn you that you have to have an actual script to call for the deployment.

  # Build Docker container and push to Docker Hub
  provider: script
  script: bash deploy.sh
    branch: master

The deployment script will consist of two aspects:

  • Building, tagging and pushing the Docker image from the CI tool (Travis)
  • Pulling, stopping and starting the Docker container from the server (DigitalOcean, in this case)

First, we can set up the building, tagging, and pushing step, which is very similar to the way I did it manually above, except it needs a unique tagging strategy and automated logging in. I struggled with figuring out some aspects the deployment script, such as a tagging strategy, logging in using input, and encoding SSH keys, and dealing with SSH inception.

So, the first part of the script is getting the image on Docker Hub, which is straightforward. The tag naming I used combines the git hash with the git tag, if it exists. This ensures a unique tag and makes it easy to identify the build it's based on. Here, DOCKER_USERNAME and DOCKER_PASSWORD are custom environment variables, which you can set through the Travis UI. Travis will redact that sensitive data from showing up in the deploy feed.

set -e # Stop script from running if there are any errors

IMAGE="<username>/<repository>"                             # Docker image
GIT_VERSION=$(git describe --always --abbrev --tags --long) # Git hash and tags

# Build and tag image
docker build -t ${IMAGE}:${GIT_VERSION} .
docker tag ${IMAGE}:${GIT_VERSION} ${IMAGE}:latest

# Log in to Docker Hub and push
echo "${DOCKER_PASSWORD}" | docker login -u "${DOCKER_USERNAME}" --password-stdin
docker push ${IMAGE}:${GIT_VERSION}

The second part of the script depends entirely on what host you're using and the strategy they have for connecting. Since I'm using DigitalOcean, this meant using doctl CLI commands. For AWS it would be aws, and so on.

There wasn't too much initial setup for the server. I set up a Droplet based on a base image. This system does require installing and starting up Docker once manually, however. I used Ubuntu 18.04, so you can just follow this simple guide to getting that step ready if you're using Ubuntu as well.

I won't supply the individual commands for the service because this will vary wildly, but what you'll do once you SSH into the deployment server will resemble this.

  • You'll want to find the currently running container and stop it. (You can do this by setting a --name on the container, and stopping and removing that container before setting the new one.)
  • Then you'll want to start up the new container in the background.
    • Add --restart-unless-stopped to ensure if something happens, Docker will restart the container.
    • Add -d to run it in the background, allowing you to escape from the script or run other commands.
  • You'll want to run the server's local port on 80, so you can go to example.com instead of example.com:5000.
  • Finally, you'll want to prune all old containers and images.
# Stop, run, and clean
docker stop current-container
docker rm current-container
docker run --name=current-container --restart unless-stopped -d -p 80:5000 ${IMAGE}:${GIT_VERSION}
docker system prune -a -f

A few things to note

You might get a warning when connecting to an SSH host from Travis, which will prevent the installation from continuing since it expects input.

The authenticity of host '<hostname> (<IP address>)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is <key fingerprint>.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?

I learned (from Vanya) that you can base64 encode a string to store it in a predictable format. In the install phase, you can decode a public key and write it to the known_hosts file to bypass that error.

echo <public key> | base64 # prints <base 64 encoded public key>

So in practice, the input would look something like this:

echo " ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAklOUpkDHrfHY17SbrmTIpNLTGK9Tjom/BWDSU
NrRFi9wrf+M7Q== you@example.com" | base64

And the base64 encoded output:

  - echo <base 64 encoded public key> | base64 -d >> $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts

The same tactic can be used with the private key during the connection phase, as you'll likely need a private key to access your server. You'll just want to make sure the private key is securely stored in the Travis environment variable and absolutely not visible from the deployment feed.

Another thing to note is you might have to run your whole deployment script from a single line, like with doctl, which can require some fine-tuning.

doctl compute ssh <droplet> --ssh-command "all the commands go here && here"

TLS/SSL and load balancing

Once I finished all this, my only final issue was that the server had no SSL. Since I'm running a Node server, there is a massive amount of setup to get an Nginx reverse-proxy and Let's Encrypt up and running.

I really was not interested in doing all that manual SSL setup, so I simply created a load balancer, and pointed the DNS at the load balancer. With DigitalOcean, for example, creating an auto-renewing self-signed certificate on a load balancer is simple, free, and instant, and has the added benefit of allowing you to easily have SSL set up on multiple servers running behind a load balancer, should you choose to. This also allows the server itself to have no concept of SSL at all, and still run everything on port 80. Certainly much easier then the alternative, with other added benefits.

Once that is set up, you can close of all inbound access on all ports for your server except port 80 from the load balancer and 22 for SSH, so trying to hit the server directly by any means except those two will be rejected.


After setting all this up, I'm no longer intimidated by Docker, or the concept of automation pipelines and CI/CD. I managed to set up a full continuous pipeline that tests my code before integrating it with production, and automatically deploys the code to a server. I'm still relatively new to this and I'm sure there are ways to make my process better and more efficient, so if you have any improvements or critiques, feel free to let me know and I'll update the article accordingly. I hope this article helps you out and you learn as much as I did!